The Young’s modulus of Steel also referred to as Modulus of Elasticity of Steel, typically falls in the range of 190 to 210 GigaPascals (GPa) or (27,500 KSI to 31200 KSI) at room temperature. This equates to roughly 27,500 to 31,200 kiloPounds per square inch (ksi). Young’s modulus gauges how steel resists stretching when subjected to tensile forces.

The Young’s modulus is a way that tells us the inflexibility or reliable-ness of a material. It’s like a quantitative measure of solicitude to the strain as far as possible.

These values can differ due to various factors, primarily the manufacturing process. The steel’s purity and the specific steel grade selected play a significant role in this variability.

Young’s Modulus is typically measured in Gigapascals (GPa), which are equivalent to Pascals x 10^6.

In accordance with the European standard EN 1993-1-1 Section 3.2.6, the Young’s modulus of steel is specified as 210,000 MegaPascals (MPa). This standard sets a reference point for this crucial property.

## What is Young’s Modulus?

Imagine Young’s modulus as a means for measuring how materials handle stretching or stresses. It’s like way for figuring out how much something squishes or stretches when you pull on it.

Here’s the definition of Young’s Modulus:

Young’s Modulus is the ratio of longitudinal stress to longitudinal strain. It’s is a modulus that helps us in determining the difference in length of a material in any direct dimension (length, height, or width).

Here’s the breakdown:

**Longitudinal stress** is all about the force you’re applying (f) divided by the area it’s acting on (a). Basically, it’s like saying how much pressure you’re putting on something.

**Longitudinal strain** is about how much your material stretches (e) compared to how long it was initially (lo). Think of it as the material’s flexibility.

Now, the magic happens when you bring these two together:

**Young modulus (e)** is just (f/a) divided by (e/lo). It’s like a mathematical handshake between stress and strain. This equation helps us understand how materials react when we tug on them. So, when you need to know if something’s going to stretch a lot or just a smidge, Young’s modulus is your go-to formula.

## How do we find the Modulus of elasticity of steel?

When it comes to figuring out the elastic modulus of steel, it’s all about hands-on experimentation. Picture this: you’re tugging on a piece of steel, gently at first, then harder. As you do, you’re keenly noting how it stretches.

Now, we’re not just yanking it randomly. This is a carefully orchestrated “tensile test.” We’re applying stress, measuring the strain (that’s how much it deforms), and we’re doing it every time we increase the load.

Imagine those results on a graph – stress on one side, strain on the other. Look for a nice, straight part at the beginning. That’s the linear elastic bit. The steepness of this line? That’s your steel’s elastic modulus.

To make things more official, we use Hooke’s law. It’s like the secret handshake of materials science. This law lets us define the Young’s modulus of steel with a neat equation.

Now, speaking of equations, let’s flip that one around a bit for clarity. We started with this:

E = σ / ε

And we’ve tweaked it to make it look like this:

σ = Eε

It’s all about getting a grip on steel’s elasticity – and now you’ve got the equation to prove it!

## Young’s Modulus of Different Materials

Let’s dive into the world of materials! Some, like swords, carbon fiber, and glass, are known as “linear” materials. They play by the rules of direct proportionality. But don’t get too comfortable with this classification; it’s not absolute.

Even non-linear materials like rubber and soils can play nice under light loads, becoming linear for a moment. On the flip side, pushing linear materials to the extreme won’t follow the rules.

Take steel, for instance. Young’s modulus is its superhero stat for stiffness. But it doesn’t always play the linear game, especially under heavy loads. Swords, usually linear, have their quirks too.

Here’s the twist: Young’s modulus measured in labs can differ from what’s seen in real-world scenarios, especially after bending. The loading and unloading behavior? Not as straightforward as you’d think. It gets all wavy with hysteresis.

So, while we’ve heard lots about this “modulus effect,” it’s like a puzzle, with different pieces for different steel grades.

For typical carbon and alloy preparations, Young’s modulus hovers around 30e6 psi (or 207 GigaPascals), dropping slightly for structural types, at 29e6 psi (or 200 GigaPascals).

To find steel’s elasticity superhero stat, pinpoint the elastic zone on the stress-strain curve (think strains under 1 percent). Then, plug it into the Young’s modulus formula: e = σ/ ε = 250 MPa / 0.01, giving you a superhero stat in MPa.

## Carbon Steel Elastic Modulus table

Material | Young’s Modulus in GPa | Young’s Modulus in ksi |

ASTM A228 | 210 | 30458 |

ASTM A36 | 200 | 29008 |

AISI 1010 | 205 | 29700 |

AISI 1018 | 205 | 29700 |

AISI 1020 | 205 | 29700 |

AISI 1025 | 190-210 | 27557-30458 |

AISI 1040 | 190-210 | 27557-30458 |

AISI 1045 | 205 | 29700 |

## Stainless Steel Elastic Modulus table

Material | Young’s Modulus in GPa | Young’s Modulus in ksi |

Grade 316 | 193 | 27992 |

Grade 405 | 200 | 29008 |

Grade 440C | 200 | 29008 |

## Young’s Modulus of Steels and Common Metals

Material | Young’s Modulus (GPa) |

Aluminum Bronze | 120 |

Aluminum | 69 |

Aluminum Alloys | 70 |

Antimony | 78 |

Beryllium (Be) | 287 |

Beryllium Copper | 124 |

Bismuth | 32 |

Brass | 102 – 125 |

Brass, Naval | 100 |

Bronze | 96 – 120 |

Cadmium | 32 |

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic | 150 |

Carbon nanotube, single-walled | 1000 |

Chromium | 248 |

Cobalt | 207 |

Copper | 117 |

Diamond (C) | 1220 |

Gold | 74 |

Grey Cast Iron | 130 |

Inconel | 214 |

Iridium | 517 |

Iron | 210 |

Lead | 13.8 |

Magnesium metal (Mg) | 45 |

Manganese | 159 |

Molybdenum (Mo) | 329 |

Monel Metal | 179 |

Nickel | 170 |

Nickel Silver | 128 |

Nickel Steel | 200 |

Niobium (Columbium) | 103 |

Osmium (Os) | 550 |

Phosphor Bronze | 116 |

Platinum | 147 |

Rhodium | 290 |

Sapphire | 435 |

Silicon | 130 – 185 |

Silicon Carbide | 450 |

Silver | 72 |

Steel, stainless AISI 302 | 180 |

Steel, Structural ASTM-A36 | 200 |

Tantalum | 186 |

Thorium | 59 |

Tin | 47 |

Titanium Alloy | 105 – 120 |

Tungsten (W) | 400 – 410 |

Tungsten Carbide (WC) | 450 – 650 |

Uranium | 170 |

Vanadium | 131 |

Wrought Iron | 190 – 210 |

Zinc | 83 |